Maffucci Syndrome with Clival Enchondroma in Nasopharynx: A Case Report.
Maffucci syndrome is an extremely rare sporadic disease, characterized by multiple enchondromas and associated with multiple hemangiomas and/or lymphangiomas. First case was reported in 1881, and fewer than 200 case have been reported to date. Potential sarcomatous malignant transformation have been noticed in previous cases. This report describes the case of 21 years-old male complain of right sided nasal obstruction for 10 months, and right sided aural fullness. Examination revealed multiple asymptomatic nodules in both hands since childhood, that have not been investigated and a large nasopharyngeal mass. Computed tomography, showed a 36 mm in 30 mm diameter lesion extending from the inferior aspect of the clivus and basisphenoid into the nasopharynx, which did not seems to be highly vascular with angiogram. Incidental radiological findings of multiple bubbly lytic bony lesions. Endoscopic sinus surgery and clival lesion excision was performed. Pathology confirmed diagnosis of clival enchondroma with clinical and radiological features consistent with Maffucci syndrome. Clear etiology have not been established yet. Mutations in gene encoding parathyroid hormone receptor 1 found in 10% of enchondromatosis. Mutations in gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH 1&2) occur in some enchondromas and spindle cell hemangiomas. Maffucci syndrome usually presents with asymmetrical distribution of multiple enchondromas. Malignant transformation is the most concerning potential sequel. Many studies have shown sarcomatous degeneration of enchondromas to chondrosarcomas in average of 25% of cases. Patient counselling and education are crucial in the management. Surgical excision usually for symptomatic patients and suspicious lesions. Nevertheless, all patient of Maffucci syndrome will require a long term follow up and surveillance for the lifelong risk of malignant transformation. Maffucci syndrome diagnosis based on clinical presentation, radiological and histopathological findings. Surgical excision offered for symptomatic patients and for suspicious lesions. Lifelong risk of sarcomatous malignant transformation necessitate a long term surveillance.
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