PRC2-complex related dysfunction in overgrowth syndromes: A review of EZH2, EED, and SUZ12 and their syndromic phenotypes

Sharri Cyrus, Deepika Burkardt, David D Weaver, William T Gibson
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics 2019, 181 (4): 519-531
The EZH2, EED, and SUZ12 genes encode proteins that comprise core components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), an epigenetic "writer" with H3K27 methyltransferase activity, catalyzing the addition of up to three methyl groups on histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27). Partial loss-of-function variants in genes encoding the EZH2 and EED subunits of the complex lead to overgrowth, macrocephaly, advanced bone age, variable intellectual disability, and distinctive facial features. EZH2-associated overgrowth, caused by constitutional heterozygous mutations within Enhancer of Zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), has a phenotypic spectrum ranging from tall stature without obvious intellectual disability or dysmorphic features to classical Weaver syndrome (OMIM #277590). EED-associated overgrowth (Cohen-Gibson syndrome; OMIM #617561) is caused by germline heterozygous mutations in Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED), and manifests overgrowth and intellectual disability (OGID), along with other features similar to Weaver syndrome. Most recently, rare coding variants in SUZ12 have also been described that present with clinical characteristics similar to the previous two syndromes. Here we review the PRC2 complex and clinical syndromes of OGID associated with core components EZH2, EED, and SUZ12.

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