Antitubercular Triazines: Optimization and Intrabacterial Metabolism

Xin Wang, Daigo Inoyama, Riccardo Russo, Shao-Gang Li, Ravindra Jadhav, Thomas P Stratton, Nisha Mittal, Joseph A Bilotta, Eric Singleton, Thomas Kim, Steve D Paget, Richard S Pottorf, Yong-Mo Ahn, Alejandro Davila-Pagan, Srinivasan Kandasamy, Courtney Grady, Seema Hussain, Patricia Soteropoulos, Matthew D Zimmerman, Hsin Pin Ho, Steven Park, Véronique Dartois, Sean Ekins, Nancy Connell, Pradeep Kumar, Joel S Freundlich
Cell Chemical Biology 2019 November 7
The triazine antitubercular JSF-2019 was of interest due to its in vitro efficacy and the nitro group shared with the clinically relevant delamanid and pretomanid. JSF-2019 undergoes activation requiring F420 H2 and one or more nitroreductases in addition to Ddn. An intrabacterial drug metabolism (IBDM) platform was leveraged to demonstrate the system kinetics, evidencing formation of NO⋅ and a des-nitro metabolite. Structure-activity relationship studies focused on improving the solubility and mouse pharmacokinetic profile of JSF-2019 and culminated in JSF-2513, relying on the key introduction of a morpholine. Mechanistic studies with JSF-2019, JSF-2513, and other triazines stressed the significance of achieving potent in vitro efficacy via release of intrabacterial NO⋅ along with inhibition of InhA and, more generally, the FAS-II pathway. This study highlights the importance of probing IBDM and its potential to clarify mechanism of action, which in this case is a combination of NO⋅ release and InhA inhibition.

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