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PD-1 Blockade in Advanced Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare and aggressive malignancies with limited treatment options. This study was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenicity of ACC.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced ACC were enrolled in a phase II study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks, without restriction on prior therapy. The primary end point was objective response rate. Efficacy was correlated with tumor programmed death-ligand 1 expression, microsatellite-high and/or mismatch repair deficient (MSI-H/MMR-D) status, and somatic and germline genomic correlates.

RESULTS: We enrolled 39 patients with advanced ACC and herein report after a median follow-up of 17.8 months (range, 5.4 months to 34.7 months). The objective response rate to pembrolizumab was 23% (nine patients; 95% CI, 11% to 39%), and the disease control rate was 52% (16 patients; 95% CI, 33% to 69%). The median duration of response was not reached (lower 95% CI, 4.1 months). Two of six patients with MSI-H/MMR-D tumors responded. The other seven patients with objective responses had microsatellite stable tumors. The median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% CI, 2.0 months to 10.7 months), and the median overall survival was 24.9 months (95% CI, 4.2 months to not reached). Thirteen percent of patients (n = 5) had treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Tumor programmed death-ligand 1 expression and MSI-H/MMR-D status were not associated with objective response.

CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D tumors, for which pembrolizumab is a standard therapy, are more common in ACC than has been recognized. In advanced ACC that is microsatellite stable, pembrolizumab provided clinically meaningful and durable antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile.

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