Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
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Population-based birth defects data in the United States, 2012-2016: A focus on abdominal wall defects.

Birth Defects Research 2019 November 2
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this report, the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) examines and compares gastroschisis and omphalocele for a recent 5-year birth cohort using data from 30 population-based birth defect surveillance programs in the United States.

METHODS: As a special call for data for the 2019 NBDPN Annual Report, state programs reported expanded data on gastroschisis and omphalocele for birth years 2012-2016. We estimated the overall prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each defect as well as by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, infant sex, and case ascertainment methodology utilized by the program (active vs. passive). We also compared distribution of cases by maternal and infant factors and presence/absence of other birth defects.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimates (per 10,000 live births) were 4.3 (95% CI: 4.1-4.4) for gastroschisis and 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) for omphalocele. Gastroschisis was more frequent among young mothers (<25 years) and omphalocele more common among older mothers (>40 years). Mothers of infants with gastroschisis were more likely to be underweight/normal weight prior to pregnancy and mothers of infants with omphalocele more likely to be overweight/obese. Omphalocele was twice as likely as gastroschisis to co-occur with other birth defects.

CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights important differences between gastroschisis and omphalocele. These differences indicate the importance of distinguishing between these defects in epidemiologic assessments. The report also provides additional data on co-occurrence of gastroschisis and omphalocele with other birth defects. This information can provide a basis for future research to better understand these defects.

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