Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN) Detected in a Child with Epileptic Spasms

Guneet Kaleka, M Eileen McCormick, Anant Krishnan
Curēus 2019 August 16, 11 (8): e5404
This report discusses a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN). BPAN is an X-linked neurodegeneration disorder associated with a mutation in the WDR45 gene. It typically presents in childhood with encephalopathy, developmental delay, and seizures. Following an initial static phase, these symptoms then progress to dementia, dystonia, and parkinsonism in early adulthood. Our child initially presented with epileptic spasms, global developmental delay, speech delay, hypotonia, spasticity, scoliosis, and gait disturbance. While these symptoms remained unchanged in early childhood, they depicted accelerated deterioration at age 12-13 rather than in adulthood. Her diagnosis was made based on her clinical presentation and review of imaging that led to specific genetic testing confirming the condition. The imaging findings were of markedly low signal on gradient T2* sequences in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra and T1 hyperintensity in the substantia nigra, with associated diffuse brain volume loss. Unlike other cases reported in the literature, there was no classic area of central hypointensity on T1 imaging in the substantia nigra.

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