JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Epidemiological analysis of allergic diseases in primary and middle school students of Foshan]

Q Q Yu, J Tang, Y J Wang, Y X Xu, M H Liu
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery 2019, 33 (10): 970-974
31623046
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and state of allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema, allergic conjunctivitis, and food allergy of students in primary and middle schools of Foshan, and to analyze the characteristics of each disease and correlation of the five diseases, in order to provide epidemiology evidence for management of allergic diseases. Method: Ten primary schools and 10 junior middle schools were sampled from 5 districts of Foshan, then students in grade one and grade seven from sampled schools were investigated by electronic questionnaire method formulated by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and the Europrevall Project Commission. Students and their parents answered and uploaded electronic questionnaires with the consent of parents, and then team members collected and analyzed uploaded data. Result: Four thousand one hundred and sixty-six effective questionnaires were collected, and the response rate was 95.77%. During the five districts, 13.97%, 2.01%, 29.29%, 5.19%, and 7.28% of the respondents in grade one had previously diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema, allergic conjunctivitis, and food allergy respectively, and the correspondent rates in grade seven were 15.99%, 2.89%, 16.73%, 2.46%, and 6.97%. The prevalence rates of the five diseases in boys were higher than that in girls in both two grades. 67.27% students with asthma kept coughing and wheezing in the last 12 months, and 24.85% non-asthma students had the same respiratory symptoms. The most common allergenic food were shrimp and crabs, followed by milk and milk products, eggs, and shellfish. Cutaneous symptoms and oral allergy symptoms were predominant clinical manifestations in all students with food allergy. The prevalence of the above allergic diseases of children with atopic family history was higher than that of children without family history, and the prevalence of the 5 diseases of children living in city was higher than that of children living in rural areas. The prevalence rate of asthma of children with allergic rhinitis in both grades was higher than that of children without allergic rhinitis, and the same happened to children with eczema, allergic conjunctivitis, and food allergy. Conclusion: Prevalence rates of allergic rhinitis and asthma in primary and middle school students of Foshan increased as children grew, while the prevalence rates of eczema, allergic conjunctivitis and food allergy decreased with age. The most common allergenic food were shrimp and crabs, milk and milk products, and eggs. 67.27% students with asthma had poor respiratory control in the last 12 months. The prevalence of allergic diseases of children living in city and with atopic family history was higher than that of children living in rural areas and without family history. Students with allergic conjunctivitis, food allergy, allergic rhinitis and eczema had high risk of asthma.

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