Radiation-related Adverse Effects of CT-guided Implantation of 125 I Seeds for Thoracic Recurrent and/or Metastatic Malignancy

Zhe Ji, Yuliang Jiang, Fuxin Guo, Ran Peng, Haitao Sun, Panfeng Wang, Jinghong Fan, Junjie Wang
Scientific Reports 2019 October 15, 9 (1): 14803
During radioactive Iodine-125 seed implantation (RISI), Iodine-125 radionuclide is implanted directly into a lesion and kills tumor cells by steadily emitting radiation. In our study, we analyzed the adverse effects of RISI for thoracic malignancy, and investigated the safety, dosage, and adverse effects of RISI for these cases. Between June 2007 and January 2018, 77 patients with thoracic recurrent and/or metastatic tumors who underwent CT-guided RISI were enrolled. Radiation-related adverse effects were analyzed, including pneumonia, esophagitis, hemorrhage, fistula, skin injury, heart injury, and spinal cord injury. We used the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.03 to evaluate adverse effects and analyzed the relationship between adverse effects and dosimetric parameters of organs at risk (OAR), including D0.1cc, D2cc, Dmean, and V20. The results of the study were as follows: The median follow-up period was 11 months. The median postoperative dose (D90) was 122 Gy (45.7-241.8 Gy). Three patients (3.9%) showed radiation pneumonitis of grade ≥2. Two patients (2.6%) showed radiation-induced esophagitis of grade ≥2. One patient (1.3%) showed an esophageal fistula. Two patients (2.6%) had a tracheal fistula. Five patients (6.5%) had radiation-related skin reactions. One patient (1.3%) reported chest wall pain, while three (3.9%) showed hemoptysis. No patients showed radiation myelitis or cardiotoxicity. The mean D2cc of organs at risk were 165.7 Gy (lung), 10.61 Gy (esophagus), 10.25 Gy (trachea), 18.07 Gy (blood vessel), 12.64 Gy (heart), 14.77 Gy (spinal cord), 17.47 Gy (skin). Dosimetric parameters, such as D0.1cc, D2cc and Dmean, were higher in patients with toxic reactions (above the upper limit of 95% confidence interval among the overall data). Chi-square test showed that skin D0.1cc > 600 Gy, D2cc > 500 Gy, and Dmean >90 Gy were associated with grade ≥2 radiation dermatitis (p < 0.05), but no clear dose-toxicity correlation was found in other OARs. So, we concluded that the overall incidence of toxicity and adverse effects from RISI for the treatment of thoracic tumors is low. The dose-toxicity characteristics have not been fully defined. Doses within the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval may be considered safe. This was a retrospective analysis, and follow-up period was minimal, indicating possible limitations of this study.

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