Challenges to assess substrate-dependent allelic effects in CYP450 enzymes and the potential clinical implications

Lauren A Marcath, Amy L Pasternak, Daniel L Hertz
Pharmacogenomics Journal 2019 October 15
Cytochrome P450 enzyme variant alleles have shown evidence that functional consequences differ between substrates. A systematic effort has not yet been made to confirm substrate-dependent activity. This review will discuss the challenges of assessing three examples (CYP2C8*3, CYP2D6*10, and CYP2C9*2) where substrate-dependent activity has been hypothesized with differing levels of evidence and their potential clinical implications. Data supports bidirectional substrate-dependent activity for CYP2C8*3. Although some data suggests CYP2D6*10 causes differences in the magnitude of effect across substrates, confirmatory studies are needed. Convincing evidence for CYP2C9*2 was lacking likely due to compensatory CYP450 metabolism or experimental variability. Confirmed substrate-dependent activity has the potential to impact clinical use of pharmacogenomics, and must be taken into consideration to ensure the goal of improving treatment through personalization is met. It is important for the pharmacogenomics community to begin thinking about this important topic and how it can be best accommodated in clinical practice.

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