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[Infiltration anesthesia].

OBJECTIVE: Complete anesthesia of any skin and soft tissue area by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injections.

INDICATIONS: Small injuries or incisions in limbs or trunk, minor surgery on the face/jaw (e.g., on the teeth), or postoperative analgesia (local infiltration anesthesia, LIA).

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Local infections at the injection site.

SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: By means of intradermal, subcutaneous or intramuscular administration, a grandeur arises, here the local anesthetic blocks nerve transmission. If anesthetized distal to end arteries, vasoconstrictors (e.g., epinephrine) should be avoided. Proximal to end arteries, localized ischemia may facilitate operative care.

POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: The effect of local anesthesia is self-limiting.

RESULTS: By means of infiltration anesthesia or "field block", larger areas of skin are easily accessible for surgical treatment. The amount to be applied has to be adapted to the extent of the operation and the maximal dose. Postoperatively, after knee or hip arthroplasty, analgesia consumption can be reduced, and early mobilization promoted using LIA.

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