Microbiota profile is different for early and invasive colorectal cancer; and is consistent throughout the colon

Leonardo Zorron Cheng Tao Pu, Kenta Yamamoto, Takashi Honda, Masanao Nakamura, Takeshi Yamamura, Shun Hattori, Alastair D Burt, Rajvinder Singh, Yoshiki Hirooka, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2019 October 14

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Microbiota have been associated with several diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to evaluate the microbiota in early/invasive CRC utilising stool and cytological brushes to determine differences in relative abundance (RA).

METHODS: Colonoscopy patients referred for endoscopic submucosal dissection or previous to CRC surgery were prospectively enrolled. Stool was collected pre-bowel preparation; and brush samples were taken during colonoscopy (3 regions). DNA extraction, 16SrRNA next generation sequencing and biostatistics (QIIME and STAMP software packages) followed. Primary outcome was the difference in RA of the Fusobacterium genus between the groups. Secondary outcomes included analyses of other microbiota.

RESULTS: 25 patients were included, of which 14 had invasive cancer (≥1000 micrometres into the submucosa). The three major genera for invasive cancer were Bacterioides, Oribacterium and Fusobacterium whereas for early cancer were Oribacterium, Bacterioides and Prevotella (decreasing order of RA). There was a significantly higher RA of Fusobacterium in the invasive cancer group (9.65% versus 0.95% respectively, p<.001). The RA of all genera was similar throughout the colon. In addition to Fusobacterium, the genera Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Neisseria, Porphyromonas and Sclegelella showed statistically higher RA in the invasive cancer group. Conversely, the genera Oribacterium, Desulfovibrio, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus showed lower RA in the invasive cancer group.

CONCLUSIONS: The RA of Fusobacterium is higher with invasive CRC than in early CRC patients. In addition, 5 other bacteria genera were found to be increased; and 4 decreased in invasive CRC patients. The microbiota per patient was similar throughout the colon.

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