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Anabolism to Catabolism: Serologic Clues to Nutritional Status in Heart Failure

Laura Murphy, Alastair Gray, Emer Joyce
Current Heart Failure Reports 2019 October 12
31606846

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition, sarcopenia, and cachexia are areas of increasing interest in the management of patients with heart failure (HF). This review aims to examine the serological markers useful in guiding the physician in identification of these patients.

RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional nutritional biomarkers including albumin/prealbumin, iron, and vitamin D deficiencies predict poor prognosis in malnutrition and HF. Novel biomarkers including ghrelin, myostatin, C-terminal agrin fragment, and adiponectin have been identified as possible substrates and/or therapeutic targets in cardiac patients with sarcopenia and cachexia, though clinical trial data is limited to date. Increased focus on nutritional deficiency syndromes in heart failure has led to the use of established markers of malnutrition as well as the identification of novel biomarkers in the management of these patients, though to date, their usage has been confined to the academic domain and further research is required to establish their role in the clinical setting.

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