New Sonographic Classification of Adenomyosis: Do Type and Degree of Adenomyosis Correlate to Severity of Symptoms?

Caterina Exacoustos, Giulia Morosetti, Francesca Conway, Sara Camilli, Francesco Giuseppe Martire, Lucia Lazzeri, Emilio Piccione, Errico Zupi
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 2019 October 7

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To correlate the type and degree of adenomyosis, scored through a new system based on the features of transvaginal sonography, to patients' symptoms and fertility.

DESIGN: This is a multicenter, observational, prospective study.

SETTING: Two endometriosis tertiary referral centers (University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and University of Siena).

PATIENTS: A total of 108 patients with ultrasonographic signs of adenomyosis.

INTERVENTIONS: A new ultrasonographic scoring system designed to assess the severity and the extent of uterine adenomyosis was used to stage the disease in correlation with the clinical symptoms. Menstrual uterine bleeding was assessed by a pictorial blood loss analysis chart, painful symptoms were evaluated using a visual analog scale, and infertility factors were considered.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 108 patients with ultrasonographic signs of adenomyosis (mean age ± standard deviation, 37.7 ± 7.7 years) were classified according to the proposed scoring system. Women with ultrasound diagnosis of diffuse adenomyosis were older (p = .04) and had heavier menstrual bleeding (p = .04) than women with focal disease; however, no statistically significant differences were found regarding the presence and severity of dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. Higher values of menstrual bleeding were found for severe diffuse adenomyosis, with the highest values being found in those with adenomyomas. In patients trying to conceive, the presence of ultrasound findings of focal disease was associated with a higher percentage of infertility than in those with diffuse disease, and the focal involvement of the junctional zone showed a higher percentage of at least 1 miscarriage than in those with diffuse adenomyosis.

CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic evaluation of the type and extension of adenomyosis in the myometrium seems to be important in correlation to the severity of symptoms and infertility.

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