Temsirolimus Metabolic Pathways Revisited

Touraj Shokati, Marcel Hartmann, Baharak Davari, Jost Klawitter, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians
Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems 2019 October 9, : 1-30
1. Temsirolimus, a derivative of sirolimus, exhibits potent antitumor properties. It was the goal of this study to identify yet unknown temsirolimus metabolites generated after incubation with human liver microsomes. Previously, 23-hydroxy-, 24-hydroxy, 12-hydroxy, hydroxy-piperidine and 27-O-desmethyl temsirolimus had been described. 2. Metabolite strutures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry, MS/iontrap (MSn ) and comparison of fragmentation patterns of the metabolites with those of temsirolimus and other known sirolimus derivatives. Moreover, enzyme kinetic parameters of temsirolimus metabolite formation as well as the contribution of individual recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to temsirolimus metabolism were investigated. 3. Human liver microsomes mainly hydroxylated and/or demethylated temsirolimus. The structures of the following metabolites were identified: O-demethylated metabolites: 39-O-desmethyl, 16-O-desmethyl, and 27-O-desmethyl temsirolimus; hydroxylated metabolites: hydroxy piperidine temsirolimus, 11-hydroxy, 12-hydroxy, 14-hydroxy, 23-hydroxy, 24-hydroxy, 25-hydroxy, 45/46-hydroxy, and 49-hydroxy temsirolimus; demethylated-hydroxylated metabolites: 16-O-desmethyl, 24-hydroxy; 16-O-desmethyl, 23-hydroxy and 16-O-desmethyl 46-hydroxy temsirolimus; didemethylated metabolite: 27,39-O-didesmethyl temsirolimus; and dihydroxylated metabolite: 12,24-dihydroxy temsirolimus. It was confirmed that CYP3A4 represents the predominant enzyme responsible for temsirolimus metabolism. Moreover, CYP3A5 as well as CYP2C8 also showed significant activities especially resulting in the formation of 27-O-desmethyl, 25-hydroxy and hydroxy-piperidine temsirolimus. 4. It is concluded that temsirolimus is metabolized to more than 20 metabolites, not counting metabolism via the sirolimus pathway. Eighteen of these metabolites could be structurally identified using ion trap MSn and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Moreover, the present study showed that, in addition to CYP3A4, metabolism via CYP3A5 and CYP2C8 also represent significant metabolic pathways.

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