Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy-related Pneumonitis: Patterns and Management

Kevin R Kalisz, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Kai R Laukamp, Amit Gupta
Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc 2019, 39 (7): 1923-1937
In recent years, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has rapidly grown, with increasing U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals of a variety of agents used as first- and second-line treatments of various malignancies. ICIs act through a unique mechanism of action when compared with those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. ICIs target the cell surface receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death protein 1, or programmed cell death ligand 1, which result in immune system-mediated destruction of tumor cells. Immune-related adverse events are an increasingly recognized set of complications of ICI therapy that may affect any organ system. ICI therapy-related pneumonitis is an uncommon but important complication of ICI therapy, with potential for significant morbidity and mortality. As the clinical manifestation is often nonspecific, CT plays an important role in diagnosis and triage. Several distinct radiographic patterns of pneumonitis have been observed: (a) organizing pneumonia, (b) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, (c) hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (d) acute interstitial pneumonia-acute respiratory distress syndrome, (e) bronchiolitis, and (f) radiation recall pneumonitis. Published guidelines outline the treatment of ICI therapy-related pneumonitis based on the severity of symptoms. Treatment is often effective, although recurrence is possible. This article reviews the mechanism of ICIs and ICI therapy complications, with subsequent management techniques and illustrations of the various radiologic patterns of ICI-therapy related pneumonitis.© RSNA, 2019.


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