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Japanese Practice Guidelines for Anal Disorders I. Hemorrhoids.

The pathogenesis of hemorrhoids is a weakening of the anal cushion and spasm of the internal sphincter. Bowel habits and lifestyles can be risk factors for hemorrhoids. The prevalence of hemorrhoids can encompass 4 to 55% of the population. Symptoms include bleeding, pain, prolapsing, swelling, itching, and mucus soiling. The diagnosis of hemorrhoids requires taking a thorough history and conducting an anorectal examination. Goligher's classification, which indicates the degree of prolapsing with internal hemorrhoids, is useful for choosing treatment. Drug therapy for hemorrhoids is typically utilized for bleeding, pain, and swelling. Ligation and excision (LE) is considered for Grade III and IV internal and external hemorrhoids. Rubber band ligation is used to treat up to Grade III internal hemorrhoids. Phenol almond oil is effective for internal hemorrhoids up to Grade III, while aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid have shown efficacy in treating prolapsing in internal hemorrhoids at Grades II, III, and IV. Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) is surgically effective for Grade III internal hemorrhoids; however, the long-term prognosis is not favorable, with high recurrence rates. Separating ligation is effective surgical treatment for internal/external hemorrhoids Grade III and Grade IV. The basic approach to thrombosed external hemorrhoids and incarcerated hemorrhoids is conservative treatment; however, in some acute or severe cases, surgical resection is considered. Comparing the different instruments used for hemorrhoid surgery, all reduce operating time, blood loss, post-operative pain, and length of time until the return to normal activity. They do, of course, increase the cost of the procedure.

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