Non-operating room anaesthesia in children

Subrahmanyam Maddirala, Annu Theagrajan
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019, 63 (9): 754-762
Administration of sedation and/or anaesthesia to patients undergoing painful or uncomfortable procedures at off-site locations is referred to as non-operating room anaesthesia (NORA). Sedating/anaesthetising children in an unfamiliar environment, with the lack of support staff, nonavailability of choice of medication and equipment is often challenging. Studies have shown an increased risk of airway-related adverse events, complications, and even death outside the operating room locations. It is crucial to be familiar with the anatomical and physiological variations in children, well versed with the difficult airway algorithm and call for help early. The most common event in NORA claims was inadequate oxygenation/ventilation, which are preventable with vigilant monitoring. English language articles were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Academic using 'sedation in children', 'remote location anaesthesia', 'peadiatric sedation', and 'nonoperating room anaesthesia' as the mesh words. Full text of the relevant articles was obtained and this review article was synthesised. The article outlines various safety guidelines, sedation techniques, drugs used for sedation, environmental concerns, procedure-specific risks, and complications associated with NORA in children.

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