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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Children:: A Prospective Follow-up Study.

AIM: To evaluate clinical and radiologic presentation, and neurologic outcome of pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 24 children (14 males and 10 females) diagnosed with PRES who were prospectively followed for 2 years. They were evaluated using Wechsler Intelligence Scale, electroencephalograph (EEG), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

RESULTS: The mean age of the studied patients at the time of diagnosis of PRES was 6 years (±2.2). Chemotherapy for cancer represented 66.7% of the causes of PRES in the studied children, followed by renal disorders and immunosuppressive agents for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-seven attacks of PRES were reported as 3 children developed a second attack of PRES. Normal intelligence quotient was found in 95.8% of studied children after PRES. Residual abnormalities in follow-up MRI were demonstrated in 3 children. Epilepsy and residual MRI lesions were reported in 2 of the 3 children with recurrent PRES. Residual lesions in follow-up MRI and epilepsy were more significantly reported after recurrent PRES ( P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Neoplastic, renal disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation represent the main disorders associated with PRES in children. Chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressants, and hypertension are the main risk factors for pediatric PRES. The outcome of pediatric PRES is good, but long-term neurologic sequelae can occur, mainly epilepsy and residual MRI abnormalities. Recurrence of PRES is infrequently reported in children receiving chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Recurrent PRES is a risk factor for long-term neurologic sequelae.

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