JOURNAL ARTICLE

Trends in complications of pediatric rhinosinusitis in the United States from 2006 to 2016

Dylan A Levy, Phayvanh P Pecha, Shaun A Nguyen, Rodney J Schlosser
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2020, 128: 109695
31568952

OBJECTIVES: 1) Evaluate the changing prevalence of complications from pediatric acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and 2) elucidate factors associated with the development of complicated acute rhinosinusitis in this population.

STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Cross-sectional analyses of the Kids' Inpatient Database.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Children <20 years with a diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis were included. Diagnosis codes pertaining to acute rhinosinusitis-related complications were then queried for each subject. All patients were ultimately categorized into one of four groups: uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis, orbital complications, intracranial complications, or both orbital and intracranial complications. Weighted measures were applied to provide national estimates.

RESULTS: Over the decade studied, national estimates for children admitted with acute rhinosinusitis decreased from 8,312 cases in 2006 to 5,592 in 2016. There was an increase in the rate of orbital complications from 8.9% to 19.3% and intracranial complications from 2.2% to 4.3%. Children with both complications increased from 0.5% to 1.0% of cases. Children with orbital complications were significantly younger (8.6 years) compared to those with intracranial complications (12.4 years) and both complication types (12.2 years) (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Despite an overall decrease in cases of acute rhinosinusitis, rates of orbital and intracranial complications continued to increase over a ten-year period. Antibiotic prescribing patterns, vaccination effects, and evolving practice patterns may help explain these observations. Further studies warrant investigation into the cause of these trends.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

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