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How we manage adults with myelodysplastic syndrome

Pierre Fenaux, Uwe Platzbecker, Lionel Ades
British Journal of Haematology 2019 September 30
31568568
The prognosis in Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although recently refined by molecular studies, remains largely based on conventional prognostic scores [International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS], classifying patients into "lower risk" MDS (LR-MDS) and "higher risk" MDS (HR-MDS). In LR-MDS, treatment mainly aims at improving cytopenias, principally anaemia, while in HR-MDS it aims at delaying disease progression and prolonging survival. In LR-MDS without deletion 5q, anaemia is generally treated first by erythropoietic stimulating factors, while second line treatments are currently not approved [lenalidomide, hypomethylating agents (HMA), luspatercept] or rarely indicated (antithymocyte globulin). Lenalidomide has major efficacy in LR-MDS with deletion 5q. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is sometimes considered in LR-MDS, and iron chelation can be considered when multiple red blood cell transfusions are required. Allo-SCT is the only potentially curative treatment for HR-MDS; however, it is rarely applicable. It is generally preceded by intensive chemotherapy (IC) or HMA in patients with excess of marrow blasts (especially if >10%). In other patients, HMA can improve survival. The role of new drugs, including venetoclax or, in case of specific mutations, IDH1 or IDH2 inhibitors, is investigated. IC is mainly indicated as a bridge to allo-SCT, in the absence of unfavourable karyotype.

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