Cause of postprandial vomiting - a giant retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma enclosing large blood vessels: A case report

Xue Zheng, Li Luo, Fu-Gang Han
World Journal of Clinical Cases 2019 September 6, 7 (17): 2617-2622

BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuroma (GN) is a rare neurogenic tumor that accounts for about 0.1%-0.5% of all tumors of the nervous system. It originates from neural crest cells. GN has no specific clinical symptoms or laboratory findings, which leaves it easily overlooked and misdiagnosed as other tumors. Retroperitoneal GN with very large volume and vascular penetration is extremely rare.

CASE SUMMARY: We present the imaging and pathological findings of a giant retroperitoneal GN in a child. A 4-year-old boy had suffered from postprandial vomiting for more than 6 mo with no precipitating factors. Abdominal computerized tomographic examination showed a giant cystic mass in the retroperitoneal area. After injection of contrast agent, the mass showed heterogeneous enhancement. Surgery with local excision of the mass was performed to address the embedded abdominal blood vessels, and the histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of the mass was GN. Postprandial vomiting was relieved, and no complications occurred after the operation.

CONCLUSION: In the diagnosis of giant retroperitoneal hypodense masses in children, GN should be considered if the mass presents delayed enhancement, punctate calcification, and vascular embedding but no invasion. Pathology is the golden standard for the diagnosis of GN, and surgical excision is the optimal treatment for GN.

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