Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis: an update on diagnosis and treatment

Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Tomoki Yokochi
ESC Heart Failure 2019, 6 (6): 1128-1139
Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) demonstrates progressive, potentially fatal, and infiltrative cardiomyopathy caused by extracellular deposition of transthyretin-derived insoluble amyloid fibrils in the myocardium. Two distinct types of transthyretin (wild type or variant) become unstable, and misfolding forms aggregate, resulting in amyloid fibrils. ATTR-CA, which has previously been underrecognized and considered to be rare, has been increasingly recognized as a cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction among elderly persons. With the advanced technology, the diagnostic tools have been improving for cardiac amyloidosis. Recently, the efficacy of several disease-modifying agents focusing on the amyloidogenic process has been demonstrated. ATTR-CA has been changing from incurable to treatable. Nevertheless, there are still no prognostic improvements due to diagnostic delay or misdiagnosis because of phenotypic heterogeneity and co-morbidities. Thus, it is crucial for clinicians to be aware of this clinical entity for early diagnosis and proper treatment. In this mini-review, we focus on recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of ATTR-CA.

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