Ceftolozane/Tazobactam vs Polymyxin or Aminoglycoside-based Regimens for the Treatment of Drug-resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Jason M Pogue, Keith S Kaye, Michael P Veve, Twisha S Patel, Anthony T Gerlach, Susan L Davis, Laura A Puzniak, Tom M File, Shannon Olson, Sorabh Dhar, Robert A Bonomo, Federico Perez
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2019 September 23

BACKGROUND: Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination that often retains activity against resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The comparative safety and efficacy vs polymyxins or aminoglycosides in this setting remains unknown.

METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study was performed. Patients who received ceftolozane/tazobactam were compared with those treated with either polymyxin or aminoglycoside-based regimens for infections due to drug-resistant P. aeruginosa. Multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for factors associated with treatment to assess the independent impact of ceftolozane/tazobactam on clinical cure, acute kidney injury (AKI), and in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included (100 in each treatment arm). The cohort represented an ill population with 69% in the intensive care unit, 63% mechanically ventilated, and 42% in severe sepsis or septic shock at infection onset. The most common infection type was ventilator-associated pneumonia (52%); 7% of patients were bacteremic. Combination therapy was more commonly used in polymyxin/aminoglycoside patients than those who received ceftolozane/tazobactam (72% vs 15%, P < .001). After adjusting for differences between groups, receipt of ceftolozane/tazobactam was independently associated with clinical cure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-5.30) and protective against AKI (aOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.22). There was no difference in in-hospital mortality. The number needed to treat for a clinical cure with ceftolozane/tazobactam was 5, and the number needed to harm with AKI with a polymyxin/aminoglycoside was 4.

CONCLUSIONS: These data support the preferential use of ceftolozane/tazobactam over polymyxins or aminoglycosides for drug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections.

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