Diagnostic Yield of Rescreening Adults for Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe A Latino, Ahmad Parvinian, Andreanne Gauthier, Rose Pantalone, Vitor Yamaki, Dinesh R Apala, Vikram Prabhudesai, Véronique Cyr, Carl Chartrand-Lefèbvre, Vivek Iyer, Marie E Faughnan
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR 2019, 30 (12): 1982-1987

PURPOSE: To determine the yield of rescreening adult hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients with initial negative screening CT for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a definite diagnosis of HHT were identified in the University of Toronto, Université de Montréal, and Mayo Clinic HHT databases. Inclusion criteria were: (i) definite diagnosis of HHT; (ii) initial negative PAVM screening based on bubble echocardiography and/or chest CT; and (iii) minimum 2-year imaging follow-up. A positive rescreen was defined as a newly detected PAVM on follow-up CT. Frequency of new PAVMs was calculated at 3 ± 1 years, 5 ± 1 years, 7-9 years, and ≥10 years. The primary endpoint was the rate of new PAVMs at 5 ± 1 years.

RESULTS: One hundred seventy-two patients (mean age, 49.6 ± 16.7 years; 59% female) were followed for a median of 7 years. Nine patients (5.2%) had newly detected PAVMs. At the 3-, 5-, 7-, and ≥10-year time points, the cumulative rate of newly detected PAVMs was 1.8% (3/166), 5.0% (7/140), 8.8% (8/91), and 13.8% (9/65), respectively. Median feeding artery diameter was 1.3 mm. One patient had a feeding artery larger than 3 mm discovered after 6 years and was treated with embolization. The overall rate of newly detected PAVMs was 0.7%/patient-year.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a definite but low rate of newly detected PAVMs in HHT patients with initial negative screening studies. No new treatable PAVMs were identified at the 5-year mark, although 1 treatable case was identified after 6 years. These findings suggest that a longer screening interval may be warranted.

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