Endoscopic resection of the third ventricular epidermoid cysts: A case review and review of literature

Samir Kashyap, Bhagat Cheema, Vaninder Chhabra
Surgical Neurology International 2019, 10: 98

Background: Epidermoid cysts are benign, congenital lesions that originate from ectodermal cells, they are most commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle, but rarely in the ventricular system. There is limited literature regarding the different microsurgical techniques utilized to approach these lesions.

Methods: A 63-year-old female with a recurrent third ventricular epidermoid cyst underwent gross total resection utilizing an endoscopic technique. We also reviewed the various endoscopic/microsurgical approaches and outcomes reported in literature.

Results: We identified 15 cases, including our own. Nine of these were managed using microsurgical techniques, while six cases (including ours) were treated endoscopically; gross total resection was achieved in 10/15 cases (67%). Most commonly, surgeons utilized the interhemispheric transcallosal approach (five cases). Tumor recurrence was seen in two cases. Complications attributed to these resections included: disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (3) - diabetes insipidus, galactorrhea, and hypopituitarism; tumor recurrence (2); aseptic meningitis (1); and a transient Korsakoff syndrome (1).

Conclusion: Epidermoid cysts of the third ventricle are exceedingly rare, and surgical resection is generally well tolerated. Microsurgical transcortical, transcallosal, and endoscopic approaches each have advantages and disadvantages, and are associated with unique procedure-specific complications. Continuing technological improvement would favor endoscopic approaches for resection of tumors of the third ventricle in the future.

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