Lack of association between hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and transient thyroid abnormalities with adverse long term neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight infants

Lay Ong Tan, Mary Grace Tan, Woei Bing Poon
PloS One 2019, 14 (9): e0222018

INTRODUCTION: The association between hypothyroxinemia of prematurity with neurodevelopment was controversial.

OBJECTIVES: To compare 5 year neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with hypothyroxinemia of prematurity against those without.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a single tertiary neonatal centre of VLBW infants born between the year 2008 to 2011. Comparisons were made between all abnormal and normal thyroid function controls using cord thyroid function tests, thyroid function tests during admission and pre-discharge thyroid function test done at term equivalent age. At 2 years corrected age, Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition and Vineland II adaptive behaviour scales (VABS) were collected. At 5 years, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III), Bracken School Readiness Assessment, VABS and Beery Test of Visual-Motor Integration were collected.

RESULTS: 110 subjects were studied at 2 years corrected age and 80 subjects at 5 years old. 29 infants had abnormal thyroid function test (10 infants with hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and 19 infants with transient thyroid abnormalities). There were no significant difference in the 2 years and 5 years developmental outcome between infants with and without hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (p-value>0.05); and between infants with and without transient thyroid abnormalities (p-value>0.05). There were no significant difference in neurological, visual and hearing impairment between infants with or without hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (p-value>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroxinemia of prematurity or transient thyroid abnormalities in VLBW infants were not associated with poorer neurodevelopment and did not support the need for levothyroxine supplementation.

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