Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Therapies for the Treatment of Obesity, Do Agonists = Antagonists?

Elizabeth A Killion, Shu-Chen Lu, Madeline Fort, Yuichiro Yamada, Murielle M Véniant, David J Lloyd
Endocrine Reviews 2020 January 1, 41 (1)
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies. Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide overexpression both protect from high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when codosed or molecularly combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs preclinically. Here, we review the current literature on GIPR, including biology, human and mouse genetics, and pharmacology of both agonists and antagonists, discussing the similarities and differences between the 2 approaches. Despite opposite approaches being investigated preclinically and clinically, there may be viability of both agonists and antagonists for the treatment of obesity, and we expect this area to continue to evolve with new clinical data and molecular and pharmacological analyses of GIPR function.

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