Original concepts in anatomy, abdominal-wall surgery, and component separation technique and strategy

M Cavalli, P G Bruni, F Lombardo, A Morlacchi, C Andretto Amodeo, G Campanelli
Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery 2020, 24 (2): 411-419

BACKGROUND: The abdominal wall can be considered comprised of two compartments: an anterior and a posterior compartment. The anterior compartment includes the anterior rectus sheath and the rectus muscle. The posterior compartment comprises the posterior rectus sheath, the transversalis fascia, and the peritoneum. When a large defect in the anterior compartment has to be corrected, for example, a rectus diastasis or large incisional hernia, an action on the anterior compartment is necessary; therefore, an anterior component separation has to be considered. If a loss of substance is present in the posterior compartment, a trasversus abdominis release should be accomplished.

METHODS: We propose an original anterior compartment mobilisation, by a posterior approach. Dissection of the posterior rectus sheet proceeds until the linea semilunaris is reached. Incision of the anterior rectus sheath permits a mobilisation of the anterior compartment by a posterior approach. A mesh is placed in a sublay position. If the abdominal wall presents a loss of substance of the posterior compartment, a transversus abdominis release (TAR) can be performed in the same time.

RESULTS: No hernia recurrences, no wound infection, and no mesh infection have been reported.

CONCLUSIONS: The anterior compartment mobilization permits mobilization towards the midline of rectus muscle and restoration of anterior compartment, with low morbidity rate; it can be easily associated to a large sublay mesh placement, it allows the preservation of the neurovascular bundles and rectus muscle trophism, and it can be associated with a concomitant TAR procedure for the restoration of the PC, if necessary.

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