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Review: Gastric cancer-Clinical aspects.

Helicobacter 2019 September
Gastric cancer (GC) was responsible for over 1 000 000 new cases in 2018 and an estimated 783 000 deaths, making it still the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both sexes worldwide. Divergent trends for GC incidence were observed in the USA. Incidence rates, particularly for non-cardia GC, were stable or increasing among persons aged <50 years. In an analysis of data from a public hospital database in Hong Kong, treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with a lower risk of GC, particularly in older subjects who received treatment ≥10 years before. Based on the results of a 16-year endoscopy-based follow-up eradication trial, patients with incomplete-type intestinal metaplasia (IM) should receive endoscopic surveillance upon H. pylori eradication therapy. Updated guidelines on the endoscopic surveillance of preneoplastic conditions of the stomach (MAPS II) have been published. In the RAINFALL trial, the addition of ramucirumab to a backbone chemotherapy as a first-line regimen failed to improve overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic disease. Also, pembrolizumab did not prolong OS when compared to paclitaxel in the second-line treatment of patients with advanced GC or esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer. Trifluridine/tipiracil improved OS by 2.1 months in the third or further treatment line of patients with advanced GC. In a systematic investigation conducted on Chinese patients with GC, CLDN18-ARHGAP26/6 fusion was associated with signet-ring cell content and was prognostic for a worse outcome and predictive for no benefit from oxaliplatin/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Organoid cultures represent an appealing model that may be applied for therapy response testing in the near future.

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