Safety and neurochemical profiles of acute and sub-chronic oral treatment with agmatine sulfate

David H Bergin, Yu Jing, Gail Williams, Bruce G Mockett, Hu Zhang, Wickliffe C Abraham, Ping Liu
Scientific Reports 2019 September 3, 9 (1): 12669
Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) exerts numerous central nervous system (CNS) dependent pharmacological effects and may potentially modulate altered neurochemistry seen in neurological disorders. In preclinical studies, injection has been the predominant route of systemic administration. However, a significant translational step would be the use of oral agmatine treatment at therapeutic doses and better understanding of L-arginine metabolic profiles in the CNS post-treatment. The present study systematically investigated the tolerability, safety and brain-plasma neurochemistry following daily oral agmatine sulfate treatment (via gavage) to wild-type (WT) mice up to 900 mg/kg for one week (Experiment 1) or WT and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) mice at 300 mg/kg for fifteen weeks (Experiment 2). Agmatine treatment in both experiments was well tolerated with no marked behavioural impairments, and gross necropsy and organ histology revealed no pathological alterations after 15-week dosing. Moreover, oral treatment increased agmatine levels in the hippocampus and plasma of WT mice (Experiment 1), and in 6 brain regions examined (but not plasma) of WT and Tg mice (Experiment 2), at 30 minutes or 24 hours post-treatment respectively. This study provides fundamental pre-clinical evidence that daily oral delivery of agmatine sulfate to both WT and Tg mice is safe and well tolerated. Exogenous agmatine passes through the blood brain barrier and accumulates in the brain to a greater extent in Tg mice. Furthermore exogenous agmatine has differential actions in the brain and periphery, and its effect on brain putrescine appears to be dependent on the time post-treatment.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"