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Epidemiology, Comorbidities, and Outcomes of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Children in the United States.

Pediatric Neurology 2020 Februrary
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an increasingly recognized entity with certain identified predisposing factors in children. However, the actual incidence, comorbidities, outcomes, and hospitalization charges among children (aged less than 20 years) in the United States are largely unknown.

METHODS: We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Database for incidence of PRES-related hospitalizations, associated diagnoses, in-hospital outcomes, and charges for children in the United States in 2016. We report demographics, risk factors, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization charges.

RESULTS: In 2016, 825 pediatric hospitalizations related to PRES were captured in the Kids' Inpatient Database. Hospital discharges including solid organ transplant, bone marrow transplant, hypertension, renal disorder, primary immunodeficiency, malignancy, sepsis, severe sepsis, systemic connective tissue disorder, blood transfusion, hypomagnesemia, and sickle cell anemia were queried for presence of PRES. The majority of patients were discharged home. We found that PRES-related hospitalizations were significantly associated with increased length of stay and hospitalization charges in 2016 (P < 0.001). A mortality rate of 3.2% was found in PRES-related hospitalizations when compared with 0.4% in non-PRES hospitalizations (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: PRES accounted for 0.04% of the hospitalizations in this database. Hypertension and the presence of a renal disorder are the most significant risk factors found to be associated with PRES. The presence of PRES was associated with a significant increase in hospitalization charges and increased length of stay.

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