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Multidrug resistance in anaerobes.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) in anaerobes is not a well-known topic. Bacteroides fragilis group isolates have numerous resistance determinants such as multidrug efflux pumps, cfiA and nimB genes and activating insertion sequences, and some isolates exhibited extensive drug-resistant patterns. MDR rates in B. fragilis group were from 1.5 to >18% and up to >71% in cfiA and nimB positive isolates carrying insertion sequences. MDR was present in >1/2 of Clostridioides difficile isolates, most often in epidemic/hypervirulent strains and unusually high metronidazole or vancomycin resistance has been reported in single studies. MDR was found in Prevotella spp. (in ≤10% of isolates), Finegoldia magna, Veillonella spp. and Cutibacterium acnes . Resistance in the anaerobes tends to be less predictable and anaerobic microbiology is required in more laboratories. New hopes may be new antibiotics such as eravacycline, cadazolid, surotomycin, ridinilazol or C. difficile toxoid vaccines; however, more efforts are needed to track the MDR in anaerobes.

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