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Incidence of Surgical Site Infection After Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Spine 2020 Februrary 2
STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients following spine surgery and the rate of microorganisms in these cases.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many studies have investigated the incidence and risk factors of SSI following spinal surgery, whereas no meta-analysis studies have been conducted regarding the comprehensive epidemiological incidence of SSI after spine surgery.

METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies that reported the incidence of SSI after spine surgery, and manually screened reference lists for additional studies. Relevant incidence estimates were calculated. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment were also performed.

RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 27 studies, with 603 SSI cases in 22,475 patients. The pooled SSI incidence was 3.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed that the incidence of superficial SSI was 1.4% and the incidence of deep SSI was 1.7%. Highest incidence (13.0%) was found in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis among the different indications. The incidences of SSI in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were 3.4%, 3.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. Compared with posterior approach surgery (5.0%), anterior approach showed a lower incidence (2.3%) of SSI. Instrumented surgery had a higher incidence of SSI than noninstrumented surgery (4.4% vs. 1.4%). Patients with minimally invasive surgery (1.5%) had a lower SSI incidence than open surgery (3.8%). Lower incidence of SSI was found when vancomycin powder was applied locally during the surgery (1.9%) compared with those not used (4.8%). In addition, the rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in microbiological culture results were 37.9%, 22.7%, and 23.1%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The pooled incidence of SSI following spine surgery was 3.1%. These figures may be useful in the estimation of the probability of SSI following spine surgery.


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