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Targeted fibrinogen concentrate use in severe traumatic haemorrhage

Jacqueline A Seebold, Don Campbell, Elizabeth Wake, Kerin Walters, Debbie Ho, Erick Chan, Andrew C Bulmer, Martin Wullschleger, James Winearls
Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine 2019, 21 (3): 171-178
31462204

OBJECTIVE: Fibrinogen is one of the first coagulation factors to be depleted during traumatic haemorrhage, and evidence suggests hypofibrinogenaemia leads to poor outcomes. A number of fibrinogen replacement products are currently available, with no clear consensus on the ideal product to use in severe traumatic haemorrhage. We hypothesised that it will be possible to rapidly administer fibrinogen concentrate (FC) guided by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) FIBTEM A5 in patients presenting with trauma haemorrhage.

METHODS: We examined 36 consecutive patients with trauma admitted to a level 1 trauma centre in Australia who received FC as part of their initial resuscitation. ROTEM analysis was conducted at various time points from emergency department (ED) admission to 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was time to administration of FC after identification of hypofibrinogenaemia using ROTEM FIBTEM A5. Data were collected on quantity and timing of product transfusion, demographics, Injury Severity Score and laboratory values of coagulation. Spearman rank order correlation was used to determine the correlation between FIBTEM A5 and Clauss fibrinogen (FibC).

RESULTS: Thirty-six patients received FC as their initial form of fibrinogen replacement during the study. Patients were hypofibrinogenaemic by both FIBTEM A5 (6 mm) and FibC (1.7 g/L) on presentation to the ED. It took a median of 22 minutes (IQR, 17-30 minutes) from time of a FIBTEM A5 analysis to FC administration. Both parameters increased significantly ( P < 0.05) by 24 hours after admission.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that administration of FC represents a rapid and feasible method to replace fibrinogen in severe traumatic haemorrhage. However, the optimal method for replacing fibrinogen in traumatic haemorrhage is controversial and large multicentre randomised controlled trials are needed to provide further evidence. This study provided baseline data to inform the design of further clinical trials investigating fibrinogen replacement in traumatic haemorrhage.

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