The efficacy of binary ethylenimine-inactivated vaccines of Gianyar-1/AK/2014 virulent strain in protecting chickens against Tabanan-1/ARP/2017 virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi, I Nyoman Mantik Astawa, I Gusti Agung Arta Putra
Veterinary World 2019, 12 (6): 758-764

Aim: This study aimed to prepare binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine and to examine their ability to induce a protective antibody response in commercial chickens.

Materials and Methods: A virulent NDV field isolate Gianyar-1/AK/2014 was propagated in chicken-embryonated eggs and was then inactivated with BEI at a concentration of 4 mM. Three groups of chickens with low-level (2 log2 hemagglutination inhibition [HI] units) maternally derived antibodies against NDV were then immunized with the BEI-inactivated vaccine. A commercial live vaccine (LaSota strain) was used as positive control, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used as negative control. A challenge experiment with a virulent NDV of Tabanan-1/ARP/2017 was performed at 3 weeks post-vaccination.

Results: At 2 weeks post-immunization, the mean titers of antibodies against NDV in serum samples of chickens immunized with 0.2 mL of BEI-inactivated NDV (Group I), with live commercial NDV vaccine (Group II) and with PBS (Group III) were 3±0.94 log2 HI units, 4.9±0.99 log2 HI unit, and 0.0±0.0 HI units, respectively. At week 3 post-immunization, the mean titers of the antibodies for the three groups were 5±1.09 log2 HI units, 6.9±0.32 log2 HI units, and 0.00 HI units, respectively. The antibody titer induced by inactivated NDV Gianyar-1/AK/2014 isolates examined at 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination was still at a significantly (p<0.01) lower level as compared to those induced by commercial life vaccine. However, the challenge test with virulent NDV of Tabanan 1/ARP/2017 isolates showed that all immunized chickens (Group I and II) survived without exhibiting any clinical sign post-challenge with the protection rates of 100%, whereas all chickens injected with PBS (Group III) died with clinical signs of ND.

Conclusion: This finding shows that the BEI-inactivated vaccines prepared using virulent NDV of Gianyar-1/AK/2014 strain was able to induce protective antibody response in chickens but still at a lower level than those induce by commercial live NDV vaccine.

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