OPEN IN READ APP
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association

Ann C Skulas-Ray, Peter W F Wilson, William S Harris, Eliot A Brinton, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Chesney K Richter, Terry A Jacobson, Mary B Engler, Michael Miller, Jennifer G Robinson, Conrad B Blum, Delfin Rodriguez-Leyva, Sarah D de Ferranti, Francine K Welty
Circulation 2019 August 19, : CIR0000000000000709
31422671
Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides 200-499 mg/dL) is relatively common in the United States, whereas more severe triglyceride elevations (very high triglycerides, ≥500 mg/dL) are far less frequently observed. Both are becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States and elsewhere, likely driven in large part by growing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus. In a 2002 American Heart Association scientific statement, the omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were recommended (at a dose of 2-4 g/d) for reducing triglycerides in patients with elevated triglycerides. Since 2002, prescription agents containing EPA+DHA or EPA alone have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating very high triglycerides; these agents are also widely used for hypertriglyceridemia. The purpose of this advisory is to summarize the lipid and lipoprotein effects resulting from pharmacological doses of n-3 FAs (>3 g/d total EPA+DHA) on the basis of new scientific data and availability of n-3 FA agents. In treatment of very high triglycerides with 4 g/d, EPA+DHA agents reduce triglycerides by ≥30% with concurrent increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas EPA-only did not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in very high triglycerides. When used to treat hypertriglyceridemia, n-3 FAs with EPA+DHA or with EPA-only appear roughly comparable for triglyceride lowering and do not increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol when used as monotherapy or in combination with a statin. In the largest trials of 4 g/d prescription n-3 FA, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were modestly decreased, indicating reductions in total atherogenic lipoproteins. The use of n-3 FA (4 g/d) for improving atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in patients with hypertriglyceridemia is supported by a 25% reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events in REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA Intervention Trial), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of EPA-only in high-risk patients treated with a statin. The results of a trial of 4 g/d prescription EPA+DHA in hypertriglyceridemia are anticipated in 2020. We conclude that prescription n-3 FAs (EPA+DHA or EPA-only) at a dose of 4 g/d (>3 g/d total EPA+DHA) are an effective and safe option for reducing triglycerides as monotherapy or as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering agents.

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
31422671
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"