Safranal, an active ingredient of saffron, attenuates cognitive deficits in amyloid β-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease: underlying mechanisms

Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Seyed-Mahdi Mohamadi-Zarch, Mehrdad Roghani
Metabolic Brain Disease 2019, 34 (6): 1747-1759
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative amyloid disorder with progressive deterioration of cognitive and memory skills. Despite many efforts, no decisive therapy yet exists for AD. Safranal is the active constituent of saffron essential oil with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, the possible beneficial effect of safranal on cognitive deficits was evaluated in a rat model of AD induced by intrahippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ1-40 ). Safranal was daily given p.o. (0.025, 0.1, and 0.2 ml/kg) post-surgery for 1 week and finally learning and memory were evaluated in addition to assessment of the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Findings showed that safranal treatment of amyloid β-microinjected rats dose-dependently improved cognition in Y-maze, novel-object discrimination, passive avoidance, and 8-arm radial arm maze tasks. Besides, safranal attenuated hippocampal level of malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonyl, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), apoptotic biomarkers including caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with no significant effect on nitrite, catalase activity, and glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, safranal prevented CA1 neuronal loss due to amyloid β1-40 . In summary, safranal treatment of intrahippocampal amyloid beta1-40 -microinjected rats could prevent learning and memory decline via neuronal protection and at a molecular level through amelioration of apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, cholinesterase activity, neutrophil infiltration, and also by preservation of mitochondrial integrity.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"