Combined Reconstruction of the Anterolateral Ligament in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Ligamentous Hyperlaxity Leads to Better Clinical Stability and a Lower Failure Rate Than Isolated Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Camilo Partezani Helito, Marcel Faraco Sobrado, Pedro Nogueira Giglio, Marcelo Batista Bonadio, José Ricardo Pécora, Gilberto Luis Camanho, Marco Kawamura Demange
Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery 2019, 35 (9): 2648-2654

PURPOSE: To compare functional outcomes, residual instability, and rupture rates in patients with ligamentous hyperlaxity undergoing isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction or combined ACL and anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction.

METHODS: Two groups of patients were evaluated and compared retrospectively. Both groups consisted of patients with ACL injuries and associated ligamentous hyperlaxity, defined based on the modified Beighton scale with a minimum score of 5. Group 1 patients underwent anatomical ACL reconstruction, and group 2 patients underwent anatomical ACL reconstruction combined with ALL reconstruction. Group 1 consisted of historical controls. The presence of associated meniscal injury, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm functional scores, KT-1000 measurements, the presence of a residual pivot-shift, and the graft rupture rate were evaluated. The study was performed at University of São Paulo in Brazil.

RESULTS: Ninety patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with ligamentous hyperlaxity were evaluated. The mean follow up was 29.6 ± 6.2 months for group 1 and 28.1 ± 4.2 months for group 2 (P = .51). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding Beighton scale, gender, the duration of injury before reconstruction, follow-up time, preoperative instability, or associated meniscal injuries. The mean age was 29.9 ± 8.1 years in group 1 and 27.0 ± 9.1 years in group 2 (P = .017). In the final evaluation, group 2 patients showed better anteroposterior clinical stability as evaluated by KT-1000 arthrometry (P = .02), better rotational stability as evaluated by the pivot-shift test (P = .03) and a lower reconstruction failure rate (21.7% [group 1] vs 3.3% [group 2]; P = .03). Clinical evaluations of postoperative functional scales showed no differences between the 2 groups (P = .27 for International Knee Documentation Committee; P = .41 for Lysholm).

CONCLUSIONS: Combined ACL and ALL reconstruction in patients with ligamentous hyperlaxity resulted in a lower failure rate and improved knee stability parameters compared to isolated ACL reconstruction. No differences were found in the functional scales.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case control study.

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