Regulation of photoprotection gene expression in Chlamydomonas by a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and a homolog of CONSTANS

St├ęphane T Gabilly, Christopher R Baker, Setsuko Wakao, Thien Crisanto, Katharine Guan, Ke Bi, Elodie Guiet, Carmela R Guadagno, Krishna K Niyogi
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2019 August 12
Photosynthetic organisms use nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanisms to dissipate excess absorbed light energy and protect themselves from photooxidation. In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , the capacity for rapidly reversible NPQ (qE) is induced by high light, blue light, and UV light via increased expression of LHCSR and PSBS genes that are necessary for qE. Here, we used a forward genetics approach to identify SPA1 and CUL4, components of a putative green algal E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as critical factors in a signaling pathway that controls light-regulated expression of the LHCSR and PSBS genes in C. reinhardtii The spa1 and cul4 mutants accumulate increased levels of LHCSR1 and PSBS proteins in high light, and unlike the wild type, they express LHCSR1 and exhibit qE capacity even when grown in low light. The spa1-1 mutation resulted in constitutively high expression of LHCSR and PSBS RNAs in both low light and high light. The qE and gene expression phenotypes of spa1-1 are blocked by mutation of CrCO, a B-box Zn-finger transcription factor that is a homolog of CONSTANS, which controls flowering time in plants. CONSTANS-like cis -regulatory sequences were identified proximal to the qE genes, consistent with CrCO acting as a direct activator of qE gene expression. We conclude that SPA1 and CUL4 are components of a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts upstream of CrCO, whose regulatory function is wired differently in C. reinhardtii to control qE capacity via cis -regulatory CrCO-binding sites at key photoprotection genes.

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