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Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from severe acute pancreatitis: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterology 2019 August 9
BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is associated with mortality in patients with critical illness such as severe acute pancreatitis, but it remains unclear whether decompressive laparotomy for ACS can improve the prognosis of patients.

CASE PRESENTATION: A woman in her 60s visited our hospital because of upper abdominal pain. On the basis of her laboratory data and abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings, acute gallstone pancreatitis was diagnosed. She underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy for the removal of the common bile duct stone. Then, a drainage tube was placed in the bile duct. However, on the 5th hospital day, her intra-abdominal pressure increased to 22 mmHg and renal dysfunction was observed, which led to the diagnosis of ACS. As intensive medical treatments did not improve her ACS, she underwent decompressive laparotomy on the 9th hospital day. Postoperatively, her laboratory data and intravesical pressure improved, and she was discharged from the hospital after abdominal closure, continuous drainage, and antibiotic therapy.

CONCLUSION: As the effectiveness of decompressive laparotomy for ACS has not been established, this treatment indication remains controversial. Decompressive laparotomy is considered useful for the management of ACS, if it is performed at an appropriate time, as in the present case.

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