Microbial carcinogenesis: Lactic acid bacteria in gastric cancer

Karla Vinasco, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Reviews on Cancer 2019 August 5, 1872 (2): 188309
While Helicobacter pylori is a fundamental risk factor, gastric cancer (GC) aetiology involves combined effects of microbial (both H. pylori and non-H. pylori), host and environmental factors. Significant differences exist between the gastric microbiome of those with gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and GC, suggesting that dysbiosis in the stomach is dynamic and correlates with progression to GC. Most notably, a consistent increase in abundance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been observed in GC patients including Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus. This review summarises how LAB can influence GC by a number of mechanisms that include supply of exogenous lactate -a fuel source for cancer cells that promotes inflammation, angiogenesis, metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and immune evasion-, production of reactive oxygen species and N-nitroso compounds, as well as anti-H. pylori properties that enable colonization by other non-H. pylori carcinogenic pathobionts.

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