Menopause: Hormones, Lifestyle, and Optimizing Aging

Mary Jane Minkin
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 2019, 46 (3): 501-514
Although American women spend approximately 30% to 40% of their lives in menopause, a state defined by the cessation of estrogen production by the ovaries, obstetricians and gynecologists in North America receive little formal education about menopausal health. Hormonal therapy has been available for more than 75 years; however, controversies surrounding its use have impacted training of care providers in all specialties. This article offers updates on care for menopausal women, focusing on symptomatology and health issues that arise related to the decline in all reproductive hormones. Lifestyle adaptations and nonmedical approaches, and nonhormonal and hormonal medications are discussed.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"