Cardiac amyloidosis: An underdiagnosed/underappreciated disease

Antonis S Manolis, Antonis A Manolis, Theodora A Manolis, Helen Melita
European Journal of Internal Medicine 2019, 67: 1-13
Cardiac amyloidosis or amyloid cardiomyopathy (ACM), commonly resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils consisted of misfolded immunoglobulin light chain (AL) or transthyretin (TTR) protein, is an underestimated cause of heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Among the three types of cardiac amyloidosis (wild-type or familial TTR and light-chain), the wild-type (Wt) TTR-related amyloidosis (ATTR) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of this heart failure group of patients. Recent advances in the diagnosis and drug treatment of ACM have ushered in a new era in early disease detection and better management of these patients. Certain clues in cardiac and extracardiac manifestations of ACM may heighten clinical suspicion and guide further confirmatory testing. Newer noninvasive imaging methods (strain echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance and bone scintigraphy) may obviate the need for endomyocardial biopsy in ATTR patients, while newer targeted therapies may alter the adverse prognosis in these patients. Early recognition of ACM is crucial in halting the disease process before irreversible organ damage occurs. Chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation combined with immunomodulatory therapy may also favorably affect the course and prognosis of light chain ACM. Finally, in select patients with end-stage disease, heart transplantation may render results comparable to non-ACM patients. All these issues are herein reviewed.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"