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JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Cardiovascular and Renal Benefits of SGLT2 Inhibitors: A Narrative Review

Soghra Rabizadeh, Manouchehr Nakhjavani, Alireza Esteghamati
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2019, 17 (2): e84353
31372172

Context: Most recently developed anti-hyperglycemic drugs have offered cardiovascular and renal benefits. In this narrative review, we discuss the cardiovascular and renal benefits of novel antidiabetic drugs, sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, in type 2 diabetes.

Evidence Acquisition: The literature published in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library were reviewed up to January 2019. The keywords including SGLT2 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular effect, and renal effect were used in different combinations.

Results: Cardiovascular disease represents a large health burden in patients with diabetes. The prevention of cardiovascular events is a major concern in the treatment of patients with diabetes. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of adverse renal events and diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. SGLT2 inhibitors as new glucose-lowering agents act by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney, which is independent of insulin secretion. We reviewed the cardiovascular effects of these drugs including effects on triple MACE (major adverse cardiovascular events), myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and stroke, as well as renal effects including albuminuria, serum creatinine, the rate of renal replacement therapy, and renal function over time, along with the mechanisms of these effects.

Conclusions: Given the suboptimal glycemic and cardiovascular risk control in type 2 diabetes, novel therapies such as SGLT2 inhibitors seem to have an important clinical advantage to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

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