Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid derivatives as novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors

Qing Mao, Xiwen Dai, Gaoyang Xu, Yu Su, Bing Zhang, Dan Liu, Shaojie Wang
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2019 July 23, 181: 111558
In our previous study, we reported a series of 1-hydroxy-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives that presented excellent in vitro xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory potency. To further investigate the structure-activity relationships of these compounds, the imidazole ring was transformed to a pyrimidine ring to design 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids (8a-8j), 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-4-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids (9c, 9e, 9j, 9l) and 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-imino-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids (10c, 10e, 10j, 10l). These compounds exhibited remarkable in vitro XO inhibitory potency with IC50 values ranging from 0.0181 μM to 0.5677 μM. Specifically, compounds 10c and 10e, with IC50 values of 0.0240 μM and 0.0181 μM, respectively, emerged as the most potent XO inhibitors, and their potencies were comparable to that of febuxostat. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the methyl group at 4-position of pyrimidine ring could damage the potency, and the XO inhibitory potency was maintained when carbonyl group was changed to an imino group. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that the representative compound 10c acted as a mixed-type inhibitor. A potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia model in rats was chosen to further confirm the hypouricemic effect of compound 10c, and the results showed that compound 10c (5 mg/kg) was able to significantly lower the serum uric acid level. Furthermore, in acute oral toxicity study, no sign of toxicity was observed when the mice were administered with a single 2000 mg/kg oral dose of compound 10c. These results suggested that compound 10c was a potent and promising uric acid-lowing agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

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