ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Core Curriculum 2020

Duvuru Geetha, J Ashley Jefferson
American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2019 July 26
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and destruction of small- and medium-sized blood vessels and the presence of circulating ANCA. Clinical disease phenotypes include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and renal-limited vasculitis. Serologic classification of AAV into proteinase 3-ANCA disease and myeloperoxidase-ANCA disease correlates with a number of disease characteristics. AAV has a predilection for the kidney, with >75% of patients having renal involvement characterized by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The cause and pathogenesis of AAV are multifactorial and influenced by genetics, environmental factors, and responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. Randomized controlled trials in the past 2 decades have refined the therapy of AAV and transformed AAV from a fatal disease to a chronic illness with relapsing course and associated morbidity. This article in AJKD's Core Curriculum in Nephrology series provides a detailed review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and advances in the management of AAV.

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