Comprehensive genetic analysis of 57 families with clinically suspected Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Hiromi Aoi, Takeshi Mizuguchi, José Ricard Ceroni, Veronica Eun Hue Kim, Isabel Furquim, Rachel S Honjo, Takuma Iwaki, Toshifumi Suzuki, Futoshi Sekiguchi, Yuri Uchiyama, Yoshiteru Azuma, Kohei Hamanaka, Eriko Koshimizu, Satoko Miyatake, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Atsushi Takata, Noriko Miyake, Satoru Takeda, Atsuo Itakura, Débora R Bertola, Chong Ae Kim, Naomichi Matsumoto
Journal of Human Genetics 2019, 64 (10): 967-978
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare multisystem disorder with specific dysmorphic features. Pathogenic genetic variants encoding cohesion complex subunits and interacting proteins (e.g., NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8, and RAD21) are the major causes of CdLS. However, there are many clinically diagnosed cases of CdLS without pathogenic variants in these genes. To identify further genetic causes of CdLS, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 57 CdLS families, systematically evaluating both single nucleotides variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs). We identified pathogenic genetic changes in 36 out of 57 (63.2 %) families, including 32 SNVs and four CNVs. Two known CdLS genes, NIPBL and SMC1A, were mutated in 23 and two cases, respectively. Among the remaining 32 individuals, four genes (ANKRD11, EP300, KMT2A, and SETD5) each harbored a pathogenic variant in a single individual. These variants are known to be involved in CdLS-like. Furthermore, pathogenic CNVs were detected in NIPBL, MED13L, and EHMT1, along with pathogenic SNVs in ZMYND11, MED13L, and PHIP. These three latter genes were involved in diseases other than CdLS and CdLS-like. Systematic clinical evaluation of all patients using a recently proposed clinical scoring system showed that ZMYND11, MED13L, and PHIP abnormality may cause CdLS or CdLS-like.

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