Anatomical analyses for maxillary sinus floor augmentation with a lateral approach. A cone beam computed tomography study

Shunsuke Kawakami, Daniele Botticelli, Yasushi Nakajima, Shigeru Sakuma, Shunsuke Baba
Annals of Anatomy 2019 July 19

BACKGROUND: Various anatomical references and structures should be analyzed prior approaching a surgery in the maxillary sinus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical structures and references involved in sinus floor elevation with a lateral approach.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients planned for sinus floor elevation were included in the study. Eighty-eight maxillary sinuses were evaluated using cone beam computed tomographies (CBCTs). The nasal floor was used as main reference (X) and sinus mucosa width, bone crest height, palatal-nasal recess angle (PNR), sinus width at the level of the nasal floor, distance from the nasal floor to the base of the sinus (X-F), position of the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA height) and diameter (PSAA diameter), lateral bone wall width at 3mm (LW 3mm) and 9mm (LW 9mm) from the base of the sinus (F), patency of the ostium (OP), and presence and position of septa have been evaluated.

RESULTS: The mean dimensions and standard deviations were the following: mucosa thickness was 2.0±1.4mm, bone crest height 2.8±1.4mm, distance X-F 8.3±1.9mm, PNR angle 135.5±23.1, sinus width 12.6±4.2mm, X-F 8.3±1.9mm, PSAA height 14.4±2.9mm, PSAA diameter 1.1±0.4mm, LW 3mm 1.5±1.2, LW 9mm 1.3±0.6mm, OP 1.9±0.4mm. Septa were present in 19.3% of the sinuses evaluated and were located mostly in the molar region.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the analysis of the CBCT before sinus floor elevation allows the identification of anatomical structures and references that might be used for the planning of the surgical approach, aiming to improve the outcome of the treatment and to avoid possible complications.

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