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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Enterobacter spp.: Update on Taxonomy, Clinical Aspects, and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance.

The genus Enterobacter is a member of the ESKAPE group, which contains the major resistant bacterial pathogens. First described in 1960, this group member has proven to be more complex as a result of the exponential evolution of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Today, 22 species belong to the Enterobacter genus. These species are described in the environment and have been reported as opportunistic pathogens in plants, animals, and humans. The pathogenicity/virulence of this bacterium remains rather unclear due to the limited amount of work performed to date in this field. In contrast, its resistance against antibacterial agents has been extensively studied. In the face of antibiotic treatment, it is able to manage different mechanisms of resistance via various local and global regulator genes and the modulation of the expression of different proteins, including enzymes (β-lactamases, etc.) or membrane transporters, such as porins and efflux pumps. During various hospital outbreaks, the Enterobacter aerogenes and E. cloacae complex exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype, which has stimulated questions about the role of cascade regulation in the emergence of these well-adapted clones.

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