Prevalence of Oral Lesions and Correlation with Intestinal Symptoms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

Dorina Lauritano, Elisa Boccalari, Dario Di Stasio, Fedora Della Vella, Francesco Carinci, Alberta Lucchese, Massimo Petruzzi
Diagnostics 2019 July 15, 9 (3)

BACKGROUND: Extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are widely studied. Oral manifestations are manifold, miscellaneous, and hardly detected by general practitioners and gastroenterologists.

OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this systematic review is to find all the possible correlations between inflammatory bowel disease and the oral cavity in order to underline the importance of multidisciplinary cooperation with dental care providers, and to secure better treatments for patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles were searched up to June 2019 through Ebsco's, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases. The search terms included IBD, oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease, oral manifestations of Crohn's disease or Ulcerative colitis, an extra-intestinal manifestation of IBD, oral Crohn's disease, and paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

DISCUSSION: The prevalence of the oral manifestation of IBD ranges from 0.7% to 37% in adults and from about 7% to 23% in children. They can be divided into specific manifestations (cobblestoning mucosa, mucosal tags, cheilitis granulomatosa, pyostomatitis vegetans) and nonspecific manifestations (halitosis, dysphagia, aphthous ulcerations, deep oral fissuring, cheilitis angularis, taste changes, lichen planus). Moreover, the link between IBD and the higher prevalence of dental caries and periodontitis have also been studied.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of oral manifestations that precede or follow intestinal symptoms of IBD, must be taken into serious consideration from both gastroenterologists and dentists in order to allow for early diagnosis and improve patients' quality of life.

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